Yarrow: Myth, Magic, and Medicine
Have I mentioned how much I love Yarrow? It is perhaps my favorite plant in my entire garden (don’t tell the other herbs that). Several years ago I went on a quest to find Yarrow and work with its medicine in person rather than continue to buy it in bulk from the co-op. I searched fields, meadows, and forests…drove up and down the Blue Ridge Highway hoping to find it on the roadsides, and probably scoured most of North Georgia trying to find this beloved plant.
And then one day I went to our local garden center…and there it was. A glorious white bloom surrounded by feathery foliage with a label that read Achillea millefolium. How funny is it that the medicine I went searching for was closer to my home all along?
According to Maud Grieve in A Modern Herbal, Yarrow’s name is a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon name for the plant – gearwe; the Dutch, yerw. To the ancients, Yarrow was known as Herba Militaris, the military herb. Linnæus named Yarrow Achillea millefolium in 1753 after the famed Greek warrior Achilles, who used Yarrow to staunch the wounds of his soldiers on the battlefield. Unfortunately, Achilles did not have dear Yarrow at the time of his mortal wounding for he lamented that he would have survived had it been near. Some say that Achilles learned about the properties of Yarrow while under the tutelage of his mentor Chiron. We often refer to Chiron as “the wounded healer” and thus Yarrow has earned a relationship with this archetype and is a valuable ally for those experiencing wounding of the soul.
Its species name, millefolium, literally means “thousand leaved” and represents the foliage of Yarrow which is so feathery that it may just have a thousand leaves after all. Its leaves look serrated, almost like a knife, showing us its doctrine of signatures of being appropriate for injuries that “cut to the bone” – this tells us much about its healing properties as a wound herb as well.
Herb-lore & Superstition
Yarrow has accumulated an extensive reputation through myth and magic in every part of the world that it is found. What’s even more fascinating is that people across different cultures and landmasses have built very similar relationships and correspondences to Yarrow.
Some refer to Yarrow as the Witch’s Herb and while I personally love this association, historically it hasn’t been, well, great. Yarrow has long been associated with, in Maud Grieve’s words, “the Evil One,” and witches together…thus furthering the longtime falsehood that witches worship the devil. Grieve states that, “…in earlier days, being sometimes known as Devil’s Nettle, Devil’s Plaything, Bad Man’s Plaything, [yarrow] was used for divination in spells.” Through my research I found countless incantations, prayers, and spells associated with Yarrow and even as late as the 17th century a witch was tried for using Yarrow.
Paradoxically, Yarrow was also considered an herb to avert evil spells. In the Fen country, people believed that if it were strewn on the doorstep no witch would dare entire the house. The Irish used to hang it up on St. John’s Eve to turn away illness and disperse spirits and in many places it was hung in the home for protection.
When going on a journey, you were to pull ten stalks of yarrow, keep nine, and throw the tenth away (as a tithing to the spirits), put the nine under the right heel and then, but of course, evil spirits would have no power over you.
Yarrow was held in extremely high esteem and therefore had to be gathered with proper ceremony. Gaelic speakers would never dare to harvest Yarrow without reciting some formula at the same time such as this beautiful example translated by Carmichael:
“I will pluck the yarrow fair
That more benign will be my face,
That more warm shall be my lips,
That more chaste shall be my speech,
Be my speech the beams of the sun,
Be my lips the sap of the strawberry.
May I be an isle in the sea,
May I be a hill on the shore,
May I be a star in the waning of the moon,
May I be a staff to the weak.
Wound can I ever man,
Wound can no man me.”
Chills y’all, chills.
Many of the superstitions and incantations that involve Yarrow are focused on finding one’s partner, especially through dream divination. One tradition from the British Isles suggests that the seeker should sew an ounce of Yarrow in a flannel and place it under their pillow before going to sleep, having repeated the following words, to bring a vision of their future husband or wife:
“Thou pretty herb of Venus’ tree,
They true name it is Yarrow;
Now who my bosom friend must be,
Pray tell thou me to-morrow.”
In Aberdeen, girls would go out to the fields on Beltane, always in silence, to gather Yarrow. Then they would shut their eyes and pull what first came to hand, repeating:
“O it’s a bonnie May morning,
I cam’ t’ pu’ the yarrow;
I hope before I go
to see my marrow.”
Another common recitation was:
“Good morrow, good morrow,
To thee, braw yarrow,
And thrice good morrow to thee;
I pray thee tell me today or tomorrow
Who is my true love to be.”
Then they would open their eyes and look in all directions. If a man was visible the girl who saw him would get her mate that year. This Yarrow divination can be seen all across the British Isles and it even made it to America! In Massachusetts the formula while walking three times around the Yarrow plant was:
“Good evening, good evening, Mr. Yarrow.
I hope I see you well tonight,
And trust I’ll see you at a meeting tomorrow.”
Then the girls would pluck the blooms of Yarrow, put it inside their dress, and sleep with it. The first man they met or spoke to at church (church! mind you!) would be their husband. Other young folks would use it as love charms, some would go and gather Yarrow from a grave in the kirkyard on Midsummer’s Eve for divining their future husband/wife, some would hang Yarrow over the marriage bed to ensure a peaceful bond…it goes on and on.
There’s also an old song from the Hebrides about the story of a certain bard who fell in love with a girl in Stornaway who had already married someone else. He was always thinking of her image and every Wednesday her wrote a song to her until he become so small from the pining that his father had to carry him in a creel on his back. Here’s an excerpt from that tune:
“I rose early in the morning yesterday,
I plucked yarrow for the horoscope of thy tale
In the hope that I might see the desire of my heart
Ochone there was seen her back towards me.”
It J.T. Garrett’s book, The Cherokee Herbal, he shares that Yarrow is considered a medicine of the East. East is considered the direction of beginning of life, of ceremonies, and of sacred teachings for preserving the tribal way of life. Some East Medicines were also used as potions for love or for “catching the right person”.
The theme with Yarrow is clearly love, partnership, and communion which is very much a reflection of its influence under the planet Venus!
Personally, I use Yarrow as an ally for boundaries and protection. It has long been considered the herb of the warrior…from the story of Achilles and his soldiers all the way to the Southeastern Muskogee tribes and I’m sure long before then. Tis Mal Crow writes in his book that Yarrow was used on shields of warriors and as a talisman for hunters, carpenters, or anything where sharp objects are used.
In my own practice, I utilize Yarrow to maintain healthy boundaries between me and others. I find that it helps us to put on our “armor” to the outside world and provides us with courage and perseverance so that we may go out into the world with strength and fortitude. I find that it is kind of like the go-to herb for empaths or folks with weak boundaries, especially when blended with Black Tourmaline. I’ll use our Strength Flower Essence, a pairing of Yarrow and Black Tourmaline, as an every day energetic ally or I have a personal infused oil of the two that I like to use before Tarot readings, for psychic protection, or when I know I’m going to be interacting with a lot of people in one day.
Monograph & Medicinal Uses
Botanical Name Achillea millefolium
Common Name Yarrow, Milfoil, Thousand Leaved, Dog Daisy, Knight's Milfoil, Bloodwort, Nose Bleed, Devil's Nettle, Old Man's Pepper, Soldier's Woundwort, Staunchweed, Sanguinary, Devil's Plaything
Parts Used Aerial Portions
Native Region Yarrow is native to Europe, Asia, and North America.
Geographic Distribution Yarrow can be found all over the world and grows very well in not-so-great soil, thriving in poorer conditions with little water. It can be found in the grass, meadows, pastures, and roadsides. There are roughly 110-140 species of Yarrow, mostly found throughout Eurasia, with only 3 species native here in North America.
Botanical Description Yarrow's stem is angular and rough with alternate feathery leaves ranging from 3-4 inches long and one inch broad. The flower are composite and densely arranged in flattened, umbel-like clusters. The leaves are alternate, lanceolate, and multi-pinnate with a feathery appearance. You can usually find its white or light pink blooms in May-September. Many ornamental varieties of Yarrow are brighter colors like golden yellow, strawberry pink, or red but the white varieties are the ones used medicinally.
Harvesting Guidelines Harvest flowers and leaves when in full bloom in the morning after the dew dries but before the Sun’s heat evaporates its essential oils.
Actions Alterative, Antiseptic, Astringent, Antispasmodic, Bitter, Carminative, Circulatory Stimulant, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Hemostatic, Vulnerary.
Taste Bitter, Pungent
Energetics Cooling, Dry
Constituents Yarrow contains 0.3% to 1.4% volatile oils (azulenes, eugenol, caryophyllene, humulene, limonene, sabinene, thujone, borneol, and camphor), resin, sesquiterpene lactones, 3-4% tannins, flavonoids (including luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, rutin, and quercitrin), alkaloids (achilletin, betonicine, stachydrine, trigonelline), alkamides, asparagin, aconitic and isovalerianic acids, selenium, beta-cerotene, proteins, sugars, phenolic acids, and coumarins. Its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy effects may be associated with the constituent chamazulene. The alkaloid fraction of yarrow has shown evidence of hypotensive effects as well as antipyretic effects. Volatile oils in yarrow may have CNS depressent activity. The constituent Achilleine, an alkaloid, might decrease clotting time.
Organ System Affinity Circulatory system, digestive system, uterus, mucosa in the respiratory system and urinary tract, the immune system.
Therapeutics The main areas of use for Yarrow are as for acute stages of colds, influenza, and respiratory catarrhs; chronic diarrhea and dysentery; epistaxis, intestinal hemorrhage, intestinal hyperpermability, and bleeding hemorrhoids; uterine hemorrhage, profuse protracted menstruation, pelvic congestion, and leukorrhea; as a wound herb for injuries, bleeding piles, burns, and other inflammations of the skin; for circulation and venous stasis, varicose veins, and hypertension.
Specific Indications Yarrow is specifically indicated for the following patterns:
Heat/Excitation: Yarrow’s cooling qualities helps to tamp down the heat/excitation tissue state which we see most clearly as inflammation of tissues, swelling, redness, increase sensitivity, and literally heat emanating from the body. Sometimes this can be seen as a fever and Yarrow is especially helpful in fevers that are “trapped” within the body and needing to be released up and out. We also see the heat/excitation tissue state as high blood pressure, restlessness, and nervousness for which Yarrow can be a valuable ally (especially if rooted in the heart).
Cold/Depression: Wait, but if it helps with heat/excitation how can it help with cold/depression? Ah yes, the magic of Yarrow. Even though Yarrow is energetically cooling it’s still a stimulant. Cold/Depression can display as poor blood flow and cold hands and feet, constipation in the digestive system, etc and leads to a decrease in cellular function which can lead to inflammation which then creates an environment for infection. Yarrow really helps to stimulate the body to correct cold/depression, purify the blood from pathogens, open the channels of elimination, and increase circulation to bring the body back to balance.
Damp/Stagnation: Yarrow helps to drain stagnant fluids and stimulate them out of the body. It is also a helpful antiseptic aid in cases of “bad blood” syndrome found in the damp/stagnation tissue state or when infection is present. Perhaps the easiest way to think of Yarrow in relationship to this tissue state is in its application to heavy, delayed menstruation. Here we see dampness in the form of blood becoming stagnant and congealed in the uterus thus creating delayed menstruation and clotty, heavy periods. Yarrow not only helps to move this blood and create healthier menses, but it also works on elimination pathways responsible for this hormonal imbalance in the first place through its bitter and stimulating action on the liver. It does not, however, have much of direct relationship with the endocrine system.
Damp/Relaxation: This tissue state is similar to damp/stagnation but different in that rather than water being stuck in the tissues, they are leaking out of the tissues. We can see this as lower body edema, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, etc. There is a lack of tone present and because of this laxity, vital liquids are just flowing out of where they are supposed to be. As an astringent, Yarrow really shines with this tissue state, helping to correct the imbalance by tonifying the tissues effected.
Psychological Profile As I mentioned before, Yarrow is traditionally indicated for the “wounded healer” psychological picture in people. Matthew Wood states that, “persons requiring Achillea are strong and courageous. They are the sort who run around putting fires out, but they may become overwhelmed and without personal boundaries as a result. He goes on to say that many of the clients he has used Yarrow with were folks who had resilient dispositions but had been experiencing just a little too much and things were starting to really take a toll. Like they were beginning to be rubbed raw, like they were being “cut to the bone.”
Yarrow, then, is the remedy for these people who like Achilles are strong and resilient warriors, but also have that famed weak spot that they cannot protect – a place of delicate frailty the comes with our mortal existence. Yarrow is a remedy for the wound we all carry inside of us.
In the words of Sajah Popham, “…[this wound is] not a mere scrape or scratch - but a wound that penetrates to the core of our very being, to our very soul. And it is the healing of this wound, this sacred wound, that constitutes a central thematic element of our souls growth, development, and evolution. Without attending to our sacred wound, we cannot grow and evolve. It is our weak spot, our “achilles heel.” Yarrow helps us to face that wound…”
Uses Yarrow is our #1 first aid plant. It's old names of Soldier’s Wound Wort and Knight’s Milfoil testify to this! Tis Mal Crow writes in his book Native Plants, Native Healing: Traditional Muskogee Way that yarrow attracts blood and coagulants to the area where applied externally and reduces the clotting time of the blood. Its vulnerary action also helps to heal wounds more quickly. I never hit the trails without yarrow leaf powder or fresh tincture in case someone falls and scrapes their knee.
As a compress, Yarrow is indicated for accidents that result with “bruises to the bone”. Anytime someone takes a bad fall, Yarrow is the recommendation. An external liminent is also used for strains, sprains, ligaments and joint pain, shin splints, and bone spurs.
Yarrow is also powerfully antiseptic internally and externally. Laboratory research suggests that aqueous extracts of yarrow exhibits activity against Staphylococcus aureus. An ethanolic extract has shown moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella flexneri. Yarrow is also one of our top blood purifiers and helps to cleanse the blood of toxins and other impurities.
Yarrow is also used as a urinary system remedy and can be helpful for cystitis and other urinary tract infections through its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and diuretic effect. Michael Moore recommends it for hamaturia with pain on urination and Burns Lingard recommends Yarrow as a simple for nephritis. Its diuretic effect in combination with its anti-inflammatory and circulatory actions is helpful in the longterm support of arthritic conditions.
As a stimulating and relaxing diaphoretic herb, Yarrow is the gold standard remedy for helping the body deal with dry fevers (where there is a lack of perspiration) – especially when combined with Elderflower and Peppermint. It is an extremely powerful remedy for severe colds and flus where perspiration is being obstructed. Its diaphoretic action helps to open the pores and get the blood moving. Reach for Yarrow at the onset of a cold, in the early stages of measles or other eruptive diseases, in acute stomach flus, and to help purify the blood in cases of infection.
According to David Hoffman in Medical Herbalism, Yarrow is considered a specific herb in thrombotic conditions associated with hypertension. It is thought to lower blood pressure by dilating the peripheral vessels. Generally speaking, Yarrow has a strong affinity for the circulatory system and more specifically with the blood vessels, helping to tighten and tonify excess relaxation through it circulatory stimulant and astringent actions. In pregnancy, Yarrow can be used as an external fomentation for enlarged veins. I have also seen it aid varicosities when used internally and externally. It is our indispensable master of the blood.
Yarrow also stimulates digestion and has a slight affinity for the gallbladder and liver. It is a classic aromatic and bitter tonic to stimulate digestive secretions and support the liver. When made as a tea, Yarrow has a very bitter and slightly laxative effect on the digestive system. Its carminative and antispasmodic actions are also very soothing to the digestive tract. As an astringent and vulnerary herb, it is highly indicated for intestinal hyper-permeability, making Yarrow one of my top choices for individuals with Celiac Disease, diverticulitis, GI infections, and other ailments of intestinal mucosa. Yarrow also aids other mucosa in the body whether that be in the digestive system, urinary tract, or the respiratory system (especially upper).
The other way I use Yarrow most frequently in my practice besides for digestive concerns and for first aid is for menstrual difficulties. As a menstrual cycle herb, Yarrow is very interesting indeed for it has what we can an amphoteric effect on the menses. Meaning that, it can do one thing in one body and the opposite in another. So it is applicable in both extremely heavy or very scanty (and absent) menstruation. It may also be used externally as a sitz bath for painful cramping during menstruation.
J. T. Garrett writes that Yarrow is often used by the Cherokee people and other “mountain folks” for “healing the woman with menstrual problems” and for cramps. In his book, The Cherokee Herbal, he says that, “One elder referred to yarrow as “a woman’s best friend.” Used with black cohosh, an elder said, “it was an answer to a prayer for menstrual problems, or when menstruation was not coming.” Another elder called it blood feather.” Tis Mal Crow also shares that the Muskogee utilize Yarrow in the same way to stimulate stagnant menses and get the blood flowing again. Culpepper too spoke of Yarrow as a helpful herb for cramps.
Cultures all over the world have recognized Yarrow as a superior wound healer, digestive aid, blood purifier and fever inducer, menstrual ally, and so much more even though they were separated by language and land masses. What a testament to the power of herbs! If we listen they will share their medicine with us. That much I know to be true.
Here’s some other interesting info I dug up about Yarrow during my research. In Sweden it is called “Field Hop” and has been used in the manufacture of beer. Linnæus considered beer brewed with yarrow more intoxicated as compared to usual hops.
Tis Mal Crow also shares that:
The tea or tincture is good for treating blood in the urine and to disinfect the urinary tract. It is also taken as a blood purifier and for jaundice, measles, and uremic poisoning. Yarrow is helpful as a tea after an attack of kidney stones or bladder infection.
The whole plant can be ground up, placed in a pan with cold water, and steeped for 10 minutes to make a compress for blood shot eyes, punctures of the eye, bleeding in the eye, bruising, pinkeye, and sties.
Yarrow can be used as a gargle for mouth and throat problems. It can also be used as a mouth rinse for bleeding gums or loose teeth.
The Muskogee also used it as smoke medicine for bleeding of the lungs.
A Note for Practitioners Yarrow is very helpful for excess Pitta and excess Kapha constitutions and is contraindicated over the long term for excess Vata as it is already cooling and drying. That said, I use it with success internally in all constitutions by formulating with the energetics of temperature/moisture/and tone in mind.
Dosage Yarrow can be prepared as a tincture, tea, salve, fomentation, powder, or poultice. It is not recommended to take large doses for long periods of time.
To make an oil, combine 1 part yarrow tops with 7 parts of oil. Keep an eye on it as it tends to mold when you use fresh flowers.
According to David Hoffman, the tincture dosage of yarrow is 2-4ml (1:5 in 25% alcohol) three times a day. Sajah Popham recommends 10-40 drops up to 5x per day of a 1:3 or 1:5 in 60-70% alcohol. Matthew Wood is an advocate of using small amounts, even just 3 drops per day. Fresh plant extracts are more pungent and aromatic than the dried plant.
As an infusion, pour 1 cup of boiling water over 1-2 tsps of dried Yarrow and infuse for 10-15 minutes. This should be drunk hot three times a day. If someone has a fever, this can be drunk hourly.
Most people only use the leaves and flowers but Michael Moore states in his monograph on Yarrow that the fresh root tincture can be applied topically to the gums for sore teeth as needed.
I like to use it in the 10-30 drop range on its own, a dropper on a cotton swab for acne spot treatment, a squirt directly in a wound to cleanse it and stop bleeding, or as 10-30% of a formula (depending on the case).
Use powder of the leaves directly on wounds to help staunch bleeding and facilitate healing (after cleaning the wound of course!)
Safety People who have allergies to other plants in the Asteraceae family may be sensitive to Yarrow. It is also contraindicated during pregnancy but no restrictions during lactation are suggested.
Longterm use of Yarrow internally and externally can result in photosensitivity. It can also cause a rash similar to posion ivy when handling, though the rash does go away quickly (in my experience) and can be helped by a salve of yarrow and calendula. Generally speaking, Yarrow isn’t an herb for extensive longterm use, especially if not part of a formula.
Herb/Drug Interactions Yarrow should be avoided by those taking anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs. There is moderate evidence for interaction between Yarrow and barbiturates and Lithium. Yarrow is considered generally safe and the research on its interactions with drugs is minimal. When in doubt, check with your primary care physician.
Energetic Architecture & Esoteric Significance
Ruling Element Water/Fire Polarity
Astrological Correspondance Aries
Planetary Ruler Venus
Tarot Four of Wands
Yarrow has a very ethereal signature to it…its feathery leaves, delicate softness, and bursting blooms ranging from light pink to bright white are a signature of its Venusian qualities. Yarrow also works on the body systems ruled by Venus such as the urinary tract, mucous membranes, passive circulation in the veins, aspects of the female reproductive system, etc. Yarrow’s history and lore also speaks to its Venusian influence as it has been long-known to be an herb associated with love magic and matters of the heart. But I truly see Yarrow to live on the axis of Mars and Venus. When there’s an excess of Venus ie. relaxed tissues, Yarrow can come in and tonify those effected areas. When we see an excess of Mars ie. inflammation, Yarrow can help to cool down the heat and heal the tissues that have become inflamed. Yarrow is a great harmonizer and truly modulates its actions dependent on the needs of the individual…just as it can modulated its chemical constituents depending on the conditions its growing in!
Venus typically rules water plants, and I would say that Yarrow is also a water-ruled plant but it is slightly different than other plants of this element. Typically when I’m identifying a plants ruling element, I look to where it is growing and aspects of its doctrine of signatures to really get a feel for its elemental correspondence. Yarrow really loves the dry, hot, sunny places unlike another water herb, Violets, who love damp forests. Which brings us again to this polarity of rulership between Water and Fire. Since Yarrow thrives in more intense environments, can actually create a heat reaction upon skin contact, and its action as our herbal “master of the blood” one could say that Yarrow is an herb ruled by Fire. But at the same time, venous circulation of the blood is ruled by Venus. One cannot exist without the other. Yarrow is a harmonizer between the two.
So this makes it a little tough to identify the Astrological Ruler and associated Tarot Card to Yarrow. Let’s break it down.
We know that Yarrow is ruled by both Water/Venus and Fire/Mars. Venus rules Taurus and Libra but Libra is an air sign and Taurus is an Earth sign. So it doesn’t seem that Yarrow is directly corresponding to either of these signs, though I feel it could certainly share characteristics of both. Mars rules Aries and Scorpio classically speaking and Aries is a fire sign and Scorpio is a water sign. I personally feel that Yarrow more closely aligns with the archetype of Aries.
It’s tough for me to really nail down Yarrow’s astrological ruler and ultimately it is coming down to my intuitive feeling. We could also say that Yarrow aligns with the polarity of Aries/Libra as opposite signs too. There’s so much to unpack here. I’m going to go with Venus in Aries…which brings us to its tarot correspondence: the Four of Wands.
The Four of Wands is a card of harmony and has strong associations with marriage, celebration, home and community. The card literally depicts a couple underneath the marriage arbor holding their arms up in celebration before going into their new home together. As we know, Yarrow has a long history of romance and unions! But if we dive even deeper into this card, we see that the Four of Wands serves as a reminder to celebrate all that we have worked towards. The Four of Wands encourages us that although most things in life are not easy, when we do finally accomplish major milestones in our lives, we need to take the time to celebrate those accomplishments and our own personal growth.
On a spiritual level, the Four of Wands reflects a sense of peace with who we are in this moment. That despite our experiences, woundings, and traumas, we have been able to transform our hardships into medicine for personal growth. This is truly the embodiment of Yarrow and its healing medicine for not only the body, but the soul as well. It is our herb for the wounded healer, after all.
Reading about the Muskogee and Cherokee uses for this herb was perhaps the most fascinating part of my research. I was born and raised on unceded Muskogee and Cherokee land and though I am a settler in their ancestral homeland, I hope to continue to honor them by coming to respect their medicine ways and their plant allies which grow all around me. It is a part of my bioregional herbal practice. It is not my goal to appropriate their traditions in any way and I highly recommend that you pick up a copy of the two books I have shared here and do all that you can to support the indigenous people who called the land you occupy home.
For those with European heritage, know that Yarrow was also a very valued herbal ally for your ancestors! Especially if you hail from the British Isles. Yarrow has been used across time and space for its healing properties that I have mentioned here. I highly recommend cultivating a relationship with it directly by way of growing it in your garden or seeking it out in the fields and wayplaces (make sure to practice ethical wildcrafting if you harvest it in the wild!)
As time goes on, I will update this monograph with additional information and make a note of the most recent edit date at the top of this page. I hope you found this monograph illuminating and that it inspires you to begin working with the medicine of Yarrow! It truly is a powerful ally and one of my dearest friends.
With love always,
Products Featuring Yarrow:
– Crow, T. M. (2001). Native Plants, Native Healing: Traditional Muskogee Way. Summertown, TN: Native Voices Book Publ.
– Culpeper, N. (1810). Culpeper's Complete Herbal. London.
– Folkard, R. (1884). Plant Lore, Legends, and Lyrics. London: R. Folkord & Son.
– Ganora, L. (2015). The Action Formula [PDF]. American Herbalists Guild.
– Garrett, J. T. (2003). The Cherokee Herbal: Native Plant Medicine from the Four Directions. Rochester, VT: Bear & Company.
– Grieve, M. (1967). A Modern Herbal. the medicinal, culinary, cosmetic and economic properties, cultivation and folk-lore of herbs, grasses, fungi, shrubs and trees with all their modern scientific uses with a new service index. New York: Hafner Publishing.
– C. Hedley, MNIMH. (n.d.). Yarrow: A Monograph. The European Journal of Herbal Medicine.
– Hoffmann, David. (2003). Medical Herbalism. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.
– Hopman, E. E. (2016). Secret Medicines From Your Garden: Plants for Healing, Spirituality, and Magic. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.
– Moore, M. Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West. Museum of New Mexico Press.
– Rohde, E. S. (1922). A Garden of Herbs: Being a practical handbook to the making of an old English herb garden: Together with numerous receipts from contemporary authorities. London: The Medici Society.
– Watts, D. (2007). Dictionary of Plant Lore. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
– Wood, M. (2002). The Six Tissue States. Journal of the American Herbalists Guild, 3(1), 28-33.
–Wood, M. Achillea millefolium. Yarrow.
– Notes from my studies at The Herbal Academy and Evolutionary Herbalism.
– Additional information collected from various sources including personal experience and synthesized in my personal materia medica.
– Drug interaction notes from the Therapeutic Research Center’s Database for Natural Medicines.
Disclosure: This information has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Consult with a qualified healthcare practitioner before using herbal products, particularly if you are pregnant, nursing, or on any medications.